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Cost of Adoption

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Domestic public agency adoption                                Zero to $  2,500
Domestic private agency adoption                              $4,000 to $30,000+
Domestic independent adoption                                  $8,000 to $30,000+
Intercountry private agency or independent                 $7,000 to $25,000
Estimates of Specific Adoption Costs
Adoption Benefits to Help Defray Adoption Costs

Domestic Public Agency Adoptions

Most public agencies place only children with special needs, which is defined differently in each state. Up-front fees and expenses range form zero to $2,500, including travel and attorney's fees. Most states, under a federal match program, will reimburse non-recurring adoption expenses up to a set limit (which cannot exceed $2,000). Federal and state adoption subsidies may be available for the ongoing care of children with special physical, mental, or emotional needs; the adoption subsidy agreement must be negotiated and signed before the child's adoption is finalized. However, there is a process whereby adoption subsidy can be applied for or renegotiated after finalization, but only under certain conditions.

For more information, see the factsheet. "Subsidized Adoption." For more information on adoption subsidy, contact NACAC's National Adoption Assistance Training, Resource, and Information Network (NAATRIN) at http://www.nacac.org/adoptionsubsidy.html. The North American Council on Adoptable Children (NACAC) staffs a hotline (800/470-6665) for parents, social workers, administrators, and lawyers who have specific questions about Title IV-E Adoption Assistance.

Domestic Private Agency Adoptions

Licensed private agencies charge fees ranging from $4,000 to $30,000, which includes the costs for birth parent counseling, adoptive parent home study and preparation, child's birth expenses, post-placement supervision until the adoption is finalized, and a portion of agency costs for overhead and operating expenses. Some agencies have sliding fee scales based on the family income over the preceding one or more taxable years. Families who locate their own birth parent and find an agency which will provide designated or identified adoption services (such as birth parent counseling and home study and supervision services only) often find this option is less costly.

Domestic Independent Adoptions

Adoptive families who pursue independent adoptions report spending $8,000 to $30,000 and more depending on several factors. Independent adoptions are now allowed in most states, but advertising in newspapers, magazines, etc. seeking birth parents is not allowed in all states. Costs for advertising for birth parents can be in the $5,000 range. Adoptive parents may find that they pay birth parent expenses for birth parents who then change their mind and that money is not reimbursed. Some couples have had more than one arrangement with a birth parent fall through. Some states require that adoptive parents pay for separate legal representation for birth parents, in addition to their own legal representation. If the child has medical difficulties, birth expenses can be much higher.

Intercountry Private Agency or Independent Adoptions

Fees for intercountry adoption range from $7,000 to $25,000, including agency fees, dossier and immigration processing fees, and court costs. However, there may be additional costs for the following items which are usually not included in the fees:

  • Child foster care (usually in South and Central American adoptions).
  • Parents' travel and in-country stay to process the adoption abroad (length of stay or number of required trips varies).
  • Escorting fees, charged when parents do not travel, but instead hire escorts to accompany the child on the flight to the parents' country.
  • Child's medical care and treatment (occasionally in South and Central America).

Estimates for Specific Adoption Costs

Domestic Adoption Costs

The figures listed below are general ranges; differences may be found depending on:

  • the type of adoption
  • the area of the United States where the adoption occurs
  • whether or not the agency charges a sliding-scale fee based on family income
  • the country of origin of a foreign-born child
  • the amount of State or Federal subsidy available for a child with special needs
  • Federal or State tax credits available for reimbursement of adoption expenses
  • employer adoption benefits
  • State reimbursement for non-recurring expenses for the adoption of a child with special needs.
Domestic Adoption Costs
  Low High
Agency fees    
Application fee $100 $500
Home study and preparation services $700 $2,500
Post-placement supervision $200 $1,500
Parent physical (each parent) $35 $150
Psychiatric evaluation (each parent; if required) $250 $400
Attorney fees    
Document preparation $500 $2,000
Petition and court representation to finalize placement $2,500 $12,000
Advertising $500 $5,000
Birth parent expenses
(Amount and type of expenses allowable for payment usually restricted by state law and subject to review by the court.
Medical expenses (prenatal, birth/delivery, postnatal for mother; perinatal care for child) $0 (insurance) $10,000 - $20,000 (depending on difficulty of the delivery, etc.)
Living expenses (rent, food, clothing, transportation, etc) $500 $12,000
Legal representation $500 $1,500
Counseling $500 $2,000

Intercountry Adoption Costs

Intercounty adoption costs vary according to the specific laws of the foreign country from which you are adopting. Costs can vary according to many factors, including:

  • whether the placement entities in the foreign country are government agencies, government subsidized orphanages, charitable foundations, attorneys, facilitators, or any combination of these.
  • whether the foreign country requires translation and/or authentication of the dossier documents
  • whether the US agency requires a "donation" to the foreign orphanage or agency
  • whether the foreign requires one or both adoptive parents to travel to the country for interviews and court hearings; could be more than one or more trips of varying length
Intercountry Adoption Costs
  Low   High
INS/State Department fees
Filing fee: I-600, I-600A   $405  
Filing fee: N-643   $125  
Immigrant visa application fee   $260  
Immigrant visa issuance fee   $60  
Agency fees $10,000   $30,000

Because international adoption programs vary from country to country, we have listed a range for total costs that includes:

US agency or attorney fees (for estimates, see Domestic Adoption Costs table above)

  • INS/State Department visa application, processing and visa medical fees
  • Homestudy and parent preparation
  • Psychological evaluations (if required)
  • Physical examinations
  • Post-placement supervision (if required)
  • Translation and authentication of adoption dossier documents (if required)
  • Agency placement fee

Fees in the foreign country

  • Travel expenses (transportation, hotel, meals)
  • Foreign agency placement fee
  • Foreign attorney legal and placement fee
  • Foster and medical care for the child
  • Use of translation and escort services by US agency representative in the foreign country
  • Foreign court filing fee & document fees (birth certificate & adoption decree)
  • Required "donation" to orphanage or agency
  • Translation services and escort services
  • Passport office fees

Resource: National Adoption Information Clearinghouse.

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